Role of MMR in Covid 19

COVID-19 infections have presented with a very unusual morbidity penetration, where patients younger than 50 show little morbidity from the disease, with mortality dramatically increasing above age 50. This is a very different presentation from other viral diseases, suggesting that some factor is protective in younger people, and missing in older patients. Theory was hypothesised that different exposure to vaccines between younger and older people may account for this different morbidity rate. Widely deployed measles-rubella containing vaccines (MRCV) including MMR, MR, and MMRV are believed to be why children, teenagers and other young adults often have few symptoms from COVID-19, and few deaths are attributed to COVID-19 in the young.

Infants are presumed well protected from COVID-19 because their own mothers have mostly likely had two MRCV vaccinations, thus passing along MRCV related passive immunity to them. Ordinarily, babies receive their first dose of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine in our country between 9-12 months of age. A second dose of MMR is recommended between ages 15-18 months.


The efficacy of MRCV has been shown to go down with age, leaving some of those who received the vaccines in their youth more vulnerable as they age. Most people over age 60 never received any form of MRCV.

Possible Mechanism

Live measles vaccine has previously been considered in studies as a base for other Coronavirus vaccines including SARS; novel alphacoronaviruses and paramyxoviruses (the measles family) have been found to cocirculate; and MRCV have previously been shown to
generally increase immunity against many unrelated viruses. An excellent discussion was presented noting the homology of amino acid sequences between the COVID virus, and the rubella virus, possibly explaining cross-over
reactivity of the vaccines.

ACNE : SKIN CARE TIPS

Myths about acne are as common as the skin problem. One common myth is that you have to let acne run its course.

Dermatologists know that letting acne runs its course is not always the best advice.

Here’s why:

  • Without treatment, dark spots and permanent scars can appear on the skin as acne clears.
  • Treating acne often boosts a person’s self-esteem.
  • Many effective treatments are available.

More women getting acne

Not just teens have acne. A growing number of women have acne in their 30s, 40s, 50s, and beyond. Dermatologists are not sure why this is happening. But dermatologists understand that adult acne can be particularly frustrating.

You can reduce your acne by following these skin care tips from dermatologists.

  1. Wash twice a day and after sweating. Perspiration, especially when wearing a hat or helmet, can make acne worse, so wash your skin as soon as possible after sweating.
  2. Use your fingertips to apply a gentle, non-abrasive cleanser. Using a washcloth, mesh sponge, or anything else can irritate the skin.
  3. Be gentle with your skin. Use gentle products, such as those that are alcohol-free. Do not use products that irritate your skin, which may include astringents, toners and exfoliants. Dry, red skin makes acne appear worse.
  4. Scrubbing your skin can make acne worse. Avoid the temptation to scrub your skin.
  5. Rinse with lukewarm water
  6. Shampoo regularly. If you have oily hair, shampoo daily.
  7. Let your skin heal naturally. If you pick, pop or squeeze your acne, your skin will take longer to clear and you increase the risk of getting acne scars.
  8. Keep your hands off your face. Touching your skin throughout the day can cause flare-ups.
  9. Stay out of the sun and tanning beds. Tanning damages you skin. In addition, some acne medications make the skin very sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light, which you get from both the sun and indoor tanning devices.
    • Using tanning beds increases your risk for melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, by 75%.
  10. Consult a dermatologist if:
    • Your acne makes you shy or embarrassed.
    • The products you’ve tried have not worked.
    • Your acne is leaving scars or darkening your skin.

Today, virtually every case of acne can be successfully treated. Dermatologists can help treat existing acne, prevent new breakouts and reduce your chance of developing scars. If you have questions or concerns about caring for your skin, you can contact us through this comment section.

Blood pressure.!! Easy ways to keep in control.

Worried about high blood pressure?? In this stressful pandemic where resources are limited, visiting health care is a big dilemma, staying at home , no gym.

Lifstyle modification is an important step in most of noncommunicable disease. Lockdown and pandemic turned out life upside down.

Follow these easy steps to maintain blood pressure:

1. Take the medicine properly

Inspite of pandemic, medical care is available where you can get the medicine which your consultant gave to put the blood pressure under control.

Normal blood pressure with medication is not an indication to stop the medicine.Your doctor will taper the dose and medicines when required.

2.Monitor blood pressure

It maybe difficult to reach healthcare during this covid 19. So make sure you get a automatic digital sphygmomanometer so that you can self check.

When you check relax yourself , check in different positions and take readings in different times a day consecutively for 3 days. Reach your doctor if it’s more than 160/100.

3.Lose extra weight

Blood pressure often increases as weight increases. Being overweight also can cause disrupted breathing while you sleep (sleep apnea), which further raises your blood pressure.

Weight loss one of the most effective lifestyle changes for controlling blood pressure. Losing even a small amount of weight if you’re overweight or obese can help reduce your blood pressure.Besides shedding pounds, you generally should also keep an eye on your waistline.

4.Exercise regularly

Regular physical activity — such as 150 minutes a week, or about 30 minutes most days of the week — can lower your blood pressure by about 5 to 8 mm Hg if you have high blood pressure. It’s important to be consistent because if you stop exercising, your blood pressure can rise again.

If you have elevated blood pressure, exercise can help you avoid developing hypertension. If you already have hypertension, regular physical activity can bring your blood pressure down to safer levels.

Some examples of aerobic exercise you may try to lower blood pressure include walking, jogging, cycling, swimming or dancing.

5.Reduce sodium in your diet

Even a small reduction in the sodium in your diet can improve your heart health and reduce blood pressure by about 5 to 6 mm Hg if you have high blood pressure.

To decrease sodium in your diet, consider these tips:

  • Read food labels. If possible, choose low-sodium alternatives of the foods and beverages you normally buy.
  • Avoid pickles, papad as they have high sodium content
  • Eat fewer processed foods. Only a small amount of sodium occurs naturally in foods. Most sodium is added during processing.
  • Don’t add salt. Just 1 level teaspoon of salt has 2,300 mg of sodium. Use herbs or spices to add flavor to your food.
  • Ease into it. If you don’t feel you can drastically reduce the sodium in your diet suddenly, cut back gradually. Your palate will adjust over time.

6.Quit smoking

Each cigarette you smoke increases your blood pressure for many minutes after you finish. Stopping smoking helps your blood pressure return to normal. Quitting smoking can reduce your risk of heart disease and improve your overall health.

7.Cut back on caffeine

The role caffeine plays in blood pressure is still debated. Caffeine can raise blood pressure up to 10 mm Hg in people who rarely consume it. But people who drink coffee regularly may experience little or no effect on their blood pressure.

Although the long-term effects of caffeine on blood pressure aren’t clear, it’s possible blood pressure may slightly increase.

8.Reduce your stress

Chronic stress may contribute to high blood pressure. 

Occasional stress also can contribute to high blood pressure if you react to stress by eating unhealthy food, drinking alcohol or smoking.

Take some time to think about what causes you to feel stressed, such as work, family, finances or illness. Once you know what’s causing your stress, consider how you can eliminate or reduce stress.

If you can’t eliminate all of your stressors, you can at least cope with them in a healthier way. Try to:

  • Change your expectations.
  • Focus on issues you can control and make plans to solve them.
  • Avoid stress triggers.
  • Make time to relax and to do activities you enjoy.

9.Get support

Supportive family and friends can help improve your health.

If you find you need support beyond your family and friends, consider joining a support group. This may put you in touch with people who can give you an emotional or morale boost and who can offer practical tips to cope with your condition.

Easy ways to get rid of Dark Spots

Anyone can get dark spots, which may appear on the face or other parts of the body. These are nothing but hyperpigmentation (more pigments than usual)

In this article, we look at home remedies and medical treatments for dark spots.

Causes

Melanin is pigment that gives skin dark color. more melanin results in dark spots.

Dark spots can also occur as a result of inflammation or trauma to the skin.

sun exposure and hormonal changes, such as those that occur during Pregnancy are most common reasons.

  • acne
  • bug bites
  • burns
  • cuts
  • Skin conditions like psoriasis 
  • a reaction to skin care products

Even everyday skin care practices can contribute to the development of dark spots. Using harsh scrubs, waxing, and shaving can all cause minor skin trauma that leads to skin changes.

How to get rid of dark spots

Dark spots are not usually harmful, so it may not be necessary to seek treatment unless a person finds them bothersome.

Treatments include:

The “wait and see” approach

In some cases, no treatment may be the best option, as the spots could go away over time.

For example, this may be the case for some types of hyperpigmentation that occur during pregnancy or those that appear after an acne pimple goes away.

In the meantime, the use of sun protection can help prevent the spots from getting darker.

Removal of the cause

If the discoloration is the result of a skin care product or certain medications, then stopping the use of these products may prevent the formation of new dark spots.

According to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), once a person removes the cause of the spots, any existing ones will typically fade within 6 to 12 months. However, daily sunscreen use is important to help the area fade and prevent the sun from darkening it.

Darker spots may take years to fade, however. In these situations, medical treatments or skin lightening products may help.

Treatment of underlying medical conditions

Proper management of existing skin conditions, such as acne or psoriasis, is likely to help stop new spots from appearing.

Any dark spots that are already on the skin due to these conditions may then fade away over time.

Sunscreen

Adequate sun protection is advisable for everyone, regardless of skin type

The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays are responsible for most dark skin spots. The UV rays trigger excess melanin production, causing new areas of hyperpigmentation and darkening existing areas.

The AAD recommend everyone to use sunscreen that:

  • has a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30
  • protects against UVA and UVB rays (manufacturers may label it as broad spectrum)
  • is water resistant

People should apply it to all areas of exposed skin — not just the face — and wear it year-round.

Natural remedies

Some people claim that natural remedies can effectively reduce dark spots . The most popular remedies include:

  • aloe vera gel
  • green tea
  • lemon juice
  • soy milk
  • tea tree oil
  • turmeric

However, there is no scientific evidence that these natural treatments lighten areas of hyperpigmentation. Some of them may even cause other skin problems. For example, lemon juice can dry out and irritate the skin.

Overall, however, these natural products are unlikely to cause harm if people use them sparingly.

Skin-lightening products

Several products are available over the counter to treat an uneven skin tone. For the best results, a person should choose a skin lightener that contains one of the following:

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant. When it comes to skin care, research suggests that it can protect against sun damage, increase collagen levels, and reduce the formation of melanin to stop hyperpigmentation.

However, it is unclear how effective it can be due to the poor ability of current preparations to penetrate the skin.

Medical treatments

If home remedies do not help get rid of the dark spots, then some people may wish to consider medical treatments.

Medical treatments include:

Laser therapy

Laser therapy uses a beam of light to eliminate areas of hyperpigmentation.However, it is expensive and requires multiple sessions.

Chemical peels

Chemical peels exfoliate the skin but go deeper than other processes. Although they can be effective, strong chemical peels may burn the skin or even produce further pigment changes.

Prevention

It may not be possible to prevent all cases of dark spots on black skin, especially those that occur due to aging and hormonal changes.

However, it is possible to reduce the risk of them developing by:

  • wearing sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30 every day
  • reapplying sunscreen every 2 hours and more frequently after swimming or sweating
  • avoiding direct sunlight between 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m.
  • moisturizing the skin daily
  • avoiding using harsh exfoliating products
  • treating acne, psoriasis, and other conditions promptly
  • seeing a doctor if black spots are the result of the birth control pill or other medications

When to see a dermatologist

Individuals who find their dark spots bothersome may wish to see a dermatologist, especially if home remedies do not achieve satisfactory results.

Those who have skin conditions that trigger dark spot development should also consider making an appointment with a dermatologist to explore treatment options.

Summary

Dark spots are a common problem for everyone They are harmless, but some people may wish to treat them for cosmetic reasons.

Home remedies include addressing the underlying cause and using skin lighteners.

If these do not work, people can discuss the possibility of laser therapy or other treatments with a dermatologist.

Immunity boosters

Many feel that their immunity is very poor. Falling sick too often. Breastfed babies have good immunity. Malnourished or anyone with chronic disease have less immunity end up catching infection.

There are evidence that nutrition and other lifestyle measures influence immune strength and susceptibility to infectious diseases

Diet

Eating a low-fat, plant-based diet may help give the immune system a boost. The immune system relies on white blood cells that produce antibodies to combat bacteria, viruses, and other invaders. There are many vegetarian foods that increase white blood cells.

Eating a low-fat diet may also be protective. Studies have shown that limiting dietary fat helps strengthen immune defenses. Plant-based diet has also been shown to reduce inflammatory biomarkers

Vitamins, Minerals, and Antioxidants

Studies have shown that fruits and vegetables provide nutrients—like beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E—that can boost immune function. Because many vegetables, fruits, and other plant-based foods are also rich in antioxidants, they help reduce oxidative stress thereby prevent aging.

Beta-Carotene: Beta-carotene is a powerful antioxidant that can reduce inflammation and boost immune function by increasing disease-fighting cells in the body. Excellent sources include sweet potatoes, carrots, and green leafy vegetables.

“An apple a day keeps the doctor away” Remember the proverb..

Vitamins C and E: Vitamins C and E are antioxidants that help to destroy free radicals and support the body’s natural immune response. Sources of vitamin C include red peppers, oranges, strawberries, broccoli, mangoes, lemons, and other fruits and vegetables. Vitamin E sources include nuts, seeds, spinach, and broccoli.

Vitamin D: Research shows vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk for viral infections, including respiratory tract infections, by reducing production of proinflammatory compounds in the body. Increased vitamin D in the blood has been linked to prevention of other chronic diseases including tuberculosis, hepatitis, and cardiovascular disease. Food sources of vitamin D include fortified cereals and milks and supplements.

Zinc: Zinc is a mineral that can help boost white blood cells, which defend against invaders. Sources include nuts, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, beans, and lentils.

Sleep

Our bodies need sleep to rest and recharge. Without a sufficient amount of sleep, we increase our risk for developing serious health problems—like heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and obesity. Inadequate sleep has also been linked to suppressed immune function. One study found that those who sleep fewer than five hours per night are more likely to have have repeated infection.

Need help falling asleep? Try adding healthful fruits, vegetables, grains, and beans to your diet. Follow sleep hygiene and sleep routine.

Water : Per day requirement.

The body is about 60% water, give or take.You are constantly losing water from your body, primarily via urine and sweat. To prevent dehydration, you need to drink adequate amounts of water.

It flushes toxins from your organs, carries nutrients to your cells, cushions your joints, and helps you digest the food you eat.

If you don’t get enough water, you can become dehydrated. Severe cases of dehydration can cause dizziness, confusion, and even seizures.

Factors that affect the water intake

You’re outside on a hot day, or doing something that makes you sweat a lot, you’ll need to drink more fluids to stay hydrated. The same is true if you have an illness that causes you to throw up, have diarrhea, or run a fever.

But if you have a condition like heart failure or a particular type of kidney disease, you may need to limit your fluid intake. Talk to your doctor about what’s right for you.

Recommendation

0-12 months – 0.7 to 0.8 L/day of water. Most of the water for children below 6 months are met with breastmilk and formula milk. After 6 months it is met with complementary food and breastmilk.

1-3 years – 1.3 L/ day

4-8 years – 1.7 L/ day

9-13 years – 2.1 to 2.3 L / day

14-18 years – 2.5 to 3 L / day

Above 19 years – 2.7 to 3.5 L / day

What Counts as “Water”?

Your recommended water intake includes all sources — drinking water, other beverages, and food. But be careful — certain fluids have their drawbacks.

For instance, juices, sodas, and smoothies can be hydrating, but they can also be high in sugar and calories.

Coffee and tea provide water, too. But, they also contain caffeine, which can make you lose more water when you pee.

Alcoholic drinks contain water, too. But like caffeine, they actually cause you to lose more water through your urine. This can lead to dehydration.

Sports drinks have a high water content. They also contain carbohydrates and electrolytes, which can help you absorb water and keep your energy levels up. During intense workouts, they help to replace salt lost through sweat. But be careful: many also contain lots of extra calories, sugar, and salt. Check the nutrition label. Pay attention to the serving size, and limit how many you drink.

Energy drinks are different from sports drinks. They contain sugar, as well as stimulants, like caffeine — often in high doses. It is recommended that children and teens avoid them.

And don’t forget foods! Fruits and vegetables like cucumbers, iceberg lettuce, celery, and watermelon are over 90% water. They also provide a variety of different vitamins and minerals. Refreshing!

How Can I Be Sure I’m Drinking Enough Water?

Do you drink enough fluid that you rarely feel thirsty? Is your pee either clear or light yellow? If you can answer “yes” to both, you’re probably getting all the fluid you need.

Lockdown – what doctors suggest

Ever since March 20, many things have changed be it your work, lifestyle and some people spent lockdown time usefully staying fit while for many – it is still continuing to be tough times of their life..

Everyday we hear different sad stories related to COVID-19 especially because of LOCKDOWN(migrant workers life, vendors in isolation ward, Indian economy issues, delayed vaccination for kids, antenatal checks up).. But still the numbers are rising and many lost their life(from pregnant women to covid warriors ) .. Even leaders said to LIVE WITH CORONA.. So the question is why lockdown in the first place!!

But there is a different story.

Forget about other countries, in India with the massive population, prevalent socio economic status, health care facilities, doctors to patients ratio – our health care system might have collapsed without LOCKDOWN.

Even research says case number would have been in lakhs and deaths in thousands.. Not to forget about SPANISH FLU 1918 and the lessons learned.

And those who have made till today without getting infected – it’s mostly because of individual efforts apart from govt restrictions.. Accepting and adapting to new normal has fetched you this.

Now Govt has started relaxing the norms for the betterment of the public..we understand how hard it is to live in lockdown with so much compromises.. but remember even the health care workers are working hard – still a longway to go for India!!

Kerala has made a significant progression in this covid19 battle – flattening the curve is all we expect..

Eventually whole Indian population might get infected – slower spread will fetch time for health care system to cope up and for new treatment options to develop..

So follow the instructions (mask, social distancing and hand hygiene ) as advised before – together let’s heal ..

LOCKDOWN 4.0 and many…..

P S: this post is only for educational purposes and not to create fear in public minds..

Postpartum exercises

Motherhood — such a powerful and overwhelmingly special experience.After nine months, little bundle of joy has finally arrived and changed your life completely.

You’re probably totally exhausted and recovering from the marathon of labor, not to mention waking every two hours with a hungry newborn. Once you have the ok from your doctor, and you have someone to take bub for an hour or two, definitely give some post-partum yoga a go.

Why do you need to do?

It’ll help loosen tight muscles, release tension, calm nerves, and calibrate and rebuild pelvic floor and abdominal muscles that have been tried and tested over nine months of supporting a heavy baby.

It is very common to struggle for a while after birth with running, laughing, sneezing, or jumping. Try not to be hard on yourself. The muscles will rebuild — they’ve worked hard, so give it time. Try not to judge, and just remember this too shall pass.

Simple yogas for postpartum:

kegels exercise:

Kegel exercise are highly recommended during the postpartum period to promote the healing of perineal tissues, increase the strength of the pelvic floor muscles, help these muscles return to a healthy state, and increase urinary control and it’s great for your sex life too.

To do Kegels, imagine you are trying to stop the flow of urine or trying not to pass gas. When you do this, you are contracting the muscles of the pelvic floor and are practicing Kegel exercises. While doing Kegel exercises, try not to move your leg, buttock, or abdominal muscles. In fact, no one should be able to tell that you are doing Kegel exercises. You can do them anywhere!

Try to do it five times. Then as you progress, increase your sets.

VIRABHADRASANA

Many new mom complain about sore shoulders and neck from constantly looking down at their gorgeous baby while feeding (bottle or breast), or from carrying bubs around all the time.This pose will get rid of it.

Keep the legs stretched apart such that right knee is bent forward and left leg stretched backward. Clasp both hands and raise above the head. Slowly stretch the back.

Virabhadrasana

Keep it for 5 seconds and change to next side. Start with 3 sets and gradually increase.

SALABHASANA

It rebuilds strength in the spine, bum, and hamstrings, while stretching through the upper chest, back and belly. It also stimulates the digestive system and abdominal organs.

It is done in prone position, both hands and legs taken off the floor. Keep in position for 3-5 breaths and repeat 3 sets gradually increasing in weeks.

SETU BANDHA SARVANGASANA

Anxiety is very common after birth. Sleepless night can aggrevate the mental stress.Bridge is a fantastic antidote to anxiety.

In supine position, knees are bent and lift the hip off the floor for 3 breaths. Repeat it 3 sets and gradually increase.

Every mama needs some time to herself, so try out these poses (or pop to your local studio) to help you physically recover, but also mentally deal with the pressures and pleasures of new motherhood.

Baby Self feeding : Tips and Tricks

Self feeding or baby led weaning is a milestone that is achieved with exploring the sense of touch, smell and taste.

Advantage

Self fed babies are independent. They know their hunger and satiety. Myth that child eats very less when self fed. Fact is they eat to hunger when trained properly. Possiblity of craving to junks is less. These babies are not much prone for obesity in adulthood. Baby relishes the food and become foodie.

When to start??

This can be started as soon as complementary feeds are started.But perfect pincer grasp at 8-9 months favours this. Pincer grasp is baby tries to hold any object and put onto mouth. Nevertheless, babyled weaning can be incorporated since 6months

What type of food can be given???

Any food can be self fed. It depends on the age of the child to handle.Try giving healthy food.

For 6 month old, when baby is ready for complementary feed, pureed or handmashed food can be given in spoon. When offered see that baby tries to hold the spoon when you try feeding. Offer another spoon of food so that they give back the empty spoon. In that way alternatively with two spoon baby can be self fed.When finger foods are offered they try to eat on themselves.

From 8 months onwards: Baby will be having 2 meal and 2 snacks which gradually increased to 3 meals and 2 snacks by one. During this period baby are put to family food. Pincer grasp will help to hold food.

You can introduce cutlery to the child. Snacks can be finger food. Finger foods are steamed vegetables, fruits that are cut in such a fashion that baby can hold and feed themselves. Roti and dosa can also be offered as finger foods. Rice can be given as rice balls for the baby to self feed.

Finger foods and rice balls

Tired of Mess??

It’s very common for the baby to do messy play. It’s not possible for anyone to cycle on the day one. Just like that baby does this messy play as a part of learning. To avoid food wastage and mess try offering one or 2 pieces in the plate. At this age baby tends to throw object too. So teach them patiently food is not to play. They will learn gradually. If baby is not interested in food and just do play activity Remove the food in 30 minutes. If they are hungry they will ask for or just have a good meal at snacks time.

Remember do not force feed or distract feed. Once they are done with self feeding do not feed them as it may get them over-fed or sometimes they have the thought of mom will feed, so chance of feeding themselves decrease.

Can the distract fed baby self feed??

Yes.

1.All you need to do is stop distract feeding cold turkey.

2.Start with one feed be breakfast or dinner or snacks . Rest other can be fed without distraction . Follow responsive feeding.

3. Give fingerfoods. Fried food can also be tried sometimes like papad and french fries.

4.Eat along with baby. Do not coax or call for food. Let them eat on interest. Especially for babies with meal time stress try giving sometime without compulsion.

5.It is a gradual process. Can’t be built in a day.

Pregnancy: Myths and Facts

Photo by Paola Vasquez on Pexels.com

It’s very common for any pregnant mom to come up with queries?? Am I doing any harm to the baby?? Is my baby well.? Well.. Though worrying is spoiling the health. Hormones play a role for mood swings a lot. It is a representation of caring deeply about the babies.

“The truth is, most babies are born healthy and perfect. And when there is a problem, it’s just not your fault”.

But here’s the thing: While we should definitely pay attention to the risks we can avoid — and make the most educated choices we can — worry itself doesn’t usually help. In fact, it tends to make us lose sleep and feel overwhelmed, and can even affect stress hormones in ways that affect pregnancy and labor.

So, to encourage you to step away from the stress, here’s a list of 10 things you definitely don’t have to worry about during your pregnancy:

1. Harming your baby.

I find that the most common fear is that we’re going to do something that harms our baby. Does sitting cross leg or doing work climbing stairs cause harm?? As far as the activities are not tiring you it is not going to harm the baby too.

you’re already a health-conscious adult , regularly on exercise and aren’t regularly engaged in activities that can cause harm to the baby like smoking, drugs or alcohol then don’t worry.

2. Eating for two.

The idea that we have to “eat for two” in pregnancy is a flat-out myth — and one that has encouraged women to both suspend good dietary habits and worry about whether they’re getting enough.

The truth is that during the first and second trimesters, you don’t need any more calories than usual. And by the third trimester you only need 450-500 more calories a day (double that if you’re pregnant with twins).

So if you’re eating an overall healthy diet, let go of the worry that you’re not eating enough for baby.

3. Having sex during pregnancy.

Having sex while you’re pregnant doesn’t usually cause miscarriage or preterm labor. The only precaution? Making sure your sexual partner doesn’t have any diseases that could be passed on to the baby.

But if you’re having symptoms of miscarriage, preterm labor, or have what’s called placenta previa, that’s a different story — follow your obstrectian advice.

4. Eating foods that could give your baby allergies.

A lot of food-conscious mamas avoid dairy, gluten, nuts, and soy during pregnancy, worrying about how it will affect their baby. But while nutrition is super-important, restricting foods during pregnancy has not been found to prevent allergies. In fact, it may even increase risk.

So unless you have to restrict certain foods for your own health, liberating your diet can actually be beneficial to your baby. Keep it healthy, but don’t restrict.

5.Sleeping on your back.

You’ve probably heard that you shouldn’t sleep on your back during pregnancy because it can cut off oxygen to your baby — and that might be leading to a lot of uncomfortable nights on your side.

But until you’re six months pregnant, this isn’t something to be concerned about. After six months, the weight of the baby and your uterus can cause pressure on a large vein called the inferior vena cava, restricting blood flow to you and baby.

However, if you find that you’ve rolled over onto your back during the night, don’t worry! It’s very unlikely that this would cause harm to baby.

6. Stress during pregnancy.

You might have heard that a mom being stressed during pregnancy can affect the baby’s long-term mental health. Especially this Coronavirus pandemic created a lot of stress in everyone’s life. Heal your mind.

The normal stresses most of us experience daily — money worries, relationship tensions, and job anxieties — are not going to cause your baby to have three heads or lifelong depression. As a species, we’ve given birth to healthy offspring under much worse threats.

7.Being a vegan or vegetarian.

No, you don’t have to eat meat and dairy — you can be vegan or vegetarian and have a perfectly healthy pregnancy.

Just make sure your diet includes plenty of vegetarian protein sources (legumes, beans, nuts, and seeds), calcium (organic tofu, almonds, tahini, and green leafy veggies), and iron (legumes, green veggies, red beans, dried apricots, and raisins). And if you’re vegan, make sure to take a B-12 supplement.

Work with your doctor or an integrative nutritionist who is pregnancy-savvy to make sure you’re meeting your prenatal nutritional needs.

8. Normal pregnancy symptoms.

Pregnancy brings with it some quirky symptoms, including nausea, increased urination, round ligament pain, breast tenderness, changes in your sense of smell and taste, sleep disturbances, mood changes, and many more. Knowing what’s normal — and what’s not — can make a huge difference in letting go of unnecessary worries.

There aren’t too many symptoms to worry about, so make sure to talk with your midwife or doctor about those.

9. What labor will be like.

Labor can’t be controlled. All you can do is to be positive.

You can’t force a homebirth, vaginal birth, unmedicated birth, or a perfect story. And worrying about it is not going to get you there.

The best thing you can do is prepare for labor. Take childbirth classes and read books that are supporting of the kind of birth you hope to have. You can also take a hypnobirthing class to give you mind-body skills that can help.

If something comes up that requires you to reroute your plans — for example, a medical reason to have a cesarean — it’s totally appropriate to grieve. But be gentle with yourself and just make sure you’re in good hands. It’s all good.

10.What other people think.

The hard fact is that women can be really judgmental with one another around pregnancy and parenthood choices.

They were many wonderful women who were kicked out of natural mom online groups because they had an epidural or needed a C-section. What other people think is not your worry.

How you do your pregnancy, birth, and parenting is your business alone. If you’re worrying about what other people think, please, stop right now — because it will keep you from making the choices that are best for you and your baby.

And when you make the choices that are right for you, your family and friends will get on board, and you’ll find the right mommy groups for yourself too!